Granite is a kind of igneous rock, found on Earth but nowhere else in the Solar System. It is formed from hot, molten magma. Its color ranges from pink to grey, according to the proportions of its minerals.
The magma is forced between other layers of rock by the pressure under the Earth’s surface. The magma cools and turns slowly into solid stone. Granite has many different types of minerals in it. These include quartz, feldspar, hornblende, and sometimes mica. As the magma cools, these minerals form crystals. The crystals can be seen easily if the granite is cut and polished.
Granite is a common stone on Earth, and makes up a big part of the crust (the Earth’s outer layer). It is usually found in the continental plates of the Earth’s crust. Although it forms under the surface of the Earth, there are many places where it has been forced upwards by tectonic movement. When plates in the Earth’s crust move together, they get bent and pushed upwards. When this happens, granite mountains can be formed.
Quartz surfaces are created from pure natural quartz, an extremely hard stone crystal mined directly from the earth. In fact, quartz is the hardest non-precious stone that can be found on the earth’s surface and quartz can be used for commercial and residential flooring, airports, malls, theatres & subways – areas prone to high footfalls & weathering. Quartz surfaces form a beautiful blend between modern sophistication and timeless luxury and due to its ever-lasting finish requires simple and routine care to maintain its good looks.
Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term “marble” to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.
Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.
Engineered stone is a composite material made of crushed stone bound together by an adhesive, (most commonly polymer resin, with some newer versions using cement mix). The two common stones used in producing these products are marbles and quartz, the application of this product depends on the original stone used, for engineered marbles the most common application is indoor flooring and walls, while the quartz based product is used primarily for kitchen countertops. Related materials include geopolymers and cast stone. Unlike terrazzo, the material is factory made in either blocks or slabs, cut and polished by fabricators, and assembled at the worksite.
Engineered stone is less porous, more flexible, and harder than many types of natural stone. Less porous varieties are more resistant to mould and mildew than most natural stone types. Since it has a uniform internal structure, it does not have hidden cracks or flaws that may exist in natural stone. Its polyester resin binding agents allow some flexibility, preventing cracking under flexural pressure. But, the binding agents often continue to harden, leading to a loss of flexural strength over time. The polyester resins are not completely UV stable and engineered stone should not be used in outdoor applications. Continuous exposure to UV can cause discoloration of the stone, and breakdown of the resin binder.
When used as floor tiles, care is required in ensuring compatibility with the adhesive used. Reaction resin adhesives and rapid drying cementitious adhesives are generally successful, but bond failure can occur with other cementitious adhesives.
Onyx is a banded variety of the oxide mineral chalcedony. Agate and onyx are both varieties of layered chalcedony that differ only in the form of the bands: agate has curved bands and onyx has parallel bands. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color (save some shades, such as purple or blue). Commonly, specimens of onyx contain bands of black and/or white.